By TheAvalonRoundTable

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July 6, 2010 19:20 EST

U.S. Presidents have issued Executive Orders since 1789.

Although there is no Constitutional provision or statute that explicitly permits Executive Orders, there is a vague grant of “executive power” given in Article II, Section 1, Clause 1 of the Constitution, and furthered by the declaration “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed” made in Article II, Section 3, Clause 4. At the minimum, most Executive Orders use these Constitutional reasoning’s as the authorization allowing for their issuance to be justified as part of the President’s sworn duties, the intent being to help direct officers of the US Executive carry out their delegated duties as well as the normal operations of the Federal Government – the consequence of failing to comply possibly being the removal from office.


Other types of orders issued by ‘the Executive’ are generally classified simply as administrative orders rather than Executive Orders. These are typically:

Presidential directives are considered a form of executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of a major agency or department found within the Executive branch of government.

Some types of Directives are:

An executive order in the United States is an order issued by the President, the head of the executive branch of the federal government. In other countries, similar edicts may be known as decrees, or orders-in-council. Executive orders may also be issued at the state level by a state’s Governor or at the local level by the city’s Mayor.

In April 1984, President Reagan signed Presidential Director Number 54 that allowed FEMA to engage in a secret national “readiness exercise” under the code name of REX 84. The exercise was to test FEMA’s readiness to assume military authority in the event of a “State of Domestic National Emergency” concurrent with the launching of a direct United States military operation in Central America. The plan called for the deputation of U.S. military and National Guard units so that they could legally be used for domestic law enforcement. These units would be assigned to conduct sweeps and take into custody an estimated 400,000 undocumented Central American immigrants in the United States. The immigrants would be interned at 10 detention centers to be set up at military bases throughout the country.

REX 84 was so highly guarded that special metal security doors were placed on the fifth floor of the FEMA building in Washington, D.C. Even long-standing employees of the Civil Defense of the Federal Executive Department possessing the highest possible security clearances were not being allowed through the newly installed metal security doors. Only personnel wearing a special red Christian cross or crucifix lapel pin were allowed into the premises. Lt. Col. North was responsible for drawing up the emergency plan, which U.S. Attorney General William French Smith opposed vehemently. The plan called for the suspension of the Constitution, turning control of the government over to FEMA, appointment of military commanders to run state and local governments and the declaration of Martial Law. The Presidential Executive Orders to support such a plan were already in place. The plan also advocated the rounding up and transfer to “assembly centers or relocation camps” of a least 21 million American Negroes in the event of massive rioting or disorder, not unlike the rounding up of the Jews in Nazi Germany in the 1930s.

Executive Order Number 12148 created the Federal Emergency Management Agency that is to interface with the Department of Defense for civil defense planning and funding. An “emergency czar” was appointed. FEMA has only spent about 6 percent of its budget on national emergencies. The bulk of their funding has been used for the construction of secret underground facilities to assure continuity of government in case of a major emergency, foreign or domestic.

Executive Order Number 12656 appointed the National Security Council as the principal body that should consider emergency powers. This allows the government to increase domestic intelligence and surveillance of U.S. citizens and would restrict the freedom of movement within the United States and grant the government the right to isolate large groups of civilians. The National Guard could be federalized to seal all borders and take control of U.S. air space and all ports of entry. Here are just a few Executive Orders associated with FEMA that would suspend the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. These Executive Orders have been on record for nearly 30 years and could be enacted by the stroke of a Presidential pen:



Some of these Executive Orders have been revoked or superseded – Reference Archives.Gov
#10990 allows the government to take over all modes of transportation and control of highways and seaports.

#10995 allows the government to seize and control the communication media.

#10997 allows the government to take over all electrical power, gas, petroleum, fuels and minerals, public and private.

#10998 allows the government to take over all food supplies and resources, public and private, including farms and equipment.

#11000 allows the government to mobilize American civilians into work brigades under government supervision; allows the government to split up families if they believe it necessary.

#11001 allows the government to take over all health, education and welfare functions and facilities, both public and private.

#11002 designates the Postmaster General to operate a national registration of all persons: men, women and children, for government service.

# 11003 allows the government to take over all airports and aircraft, including commercial aircraft.

#11004 allows the Housing and Finance Authority to relocate communities, build new housing with public funds, designate areas to be abandoned as “unsafe”, and establish new locations for populations.

#11005 allows the government to take over railroads, inland waterways and storage facilities, public and private.

#11051 specifies the responsibility of the Office of Emergency Planning and gives authorization to put all EOs into effect in times of increased international tensions and economic or financial crisis.

#11310 grants authority to the Department of Justice to enforce the plans set out in EOs, to institute industrial support, to establish judicial and legislative liaison, to control all aliens, to operate penal and correctional institutions, and to advise and assist the President.

#11049 assigns emergency preparedness function to federal departments and agencies, consolidating 21 operative EOs issued over a fifteen year period.

# 11921 allows the Federal Emergency Preparedness Agency to develop plans to establish control over the mechanisms of production and distribution, of energy sources, wages, salaries, credit and the flow of money in U.S. financial institution in any undefined national emergency. It also provides that WHEN A STATE OF EMERGENCY IS DECLARED BY THE PRESIDENT, CONGRESS CANNOT REVIEW THE ACTION FOR SIX MONTHS.


Number – Title/Description – Date signed

13489 Presidential Records 2009-01-21

13490 Ethics Commitments by Executive Branch Personnel 2009-01-21

13491 Ensuring Lawful Interrogations 2009-01-22

13492 Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base and Closure of Detention Facilities 2009-01-22

13493 Review of Detention Policy Options 2009-01-22

13494 Economy in Government Contracting 2009-01-30

13495 Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers Under Service Contracts 2009-01-30

13496 Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws (Repealed Executive Order 13201) 2009-01-30

13497 Revocation of Certain Executive Orders Concerning Regulatory Planning and Review 2009-02-05

13498 Amendments to Executive Order 13199 and Establishment of the President’s Advisory Council for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships 2009-02-06

13499 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12835, Establishment of the National Economic Council 2009-02-05

13500 Further Amendments to Executive Order 12859, Establishment of the Domestic Policy Council 2009-02-05

13501 Establishing the President’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board 2009-02-06

13502 Use of Project Labor Agreements for Federal Construction Projects 2009-02-06

13503 Establishment of the White House Office of Urban Affairs 2009-02-19

13504 Amending Executive Order 13390 2009-02-19

13505 Removing Barriers to Responsible Scientific Research Involving Human Stem Cells 2009-03-09

13506 Establishing a White House Council on Women and Girls 2009-03-11

13507 Establishment of the White House Office of Health Reform 2009-04-08

13508 Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration 2009-05-12

13509 Establishing a White House Council on Automotive Communities and Workers 2009-06-23

13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance 2009-10-05

13524 Amending Executive Order 12425 Designating INTERPOL

as a public International Organization entitled to enjoy certain privileges, exemptions, and immunities


13528 Establishment of the Council of Governors. Signed: 2010-01-11

13535 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s Consistency with Longstanding Restrictions on the Use of Federal Funds for Abortion 2010-03-23

13543 National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling 2010-05-21



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